Without any prior experience, you would be forgiven for thinking that buying a new set of strings for your guitar is a relatively straight-forward thing to do. I still remember the first time I bought new strings for my first acoustic guitar. I thought I would just ask for some ‘guitar strings’, hand over the cash, and be given some. I quickly learned that I was not going to be that lucky as it developed into a baffling experience that ended with me just buying the first set that was offered to me.
I genuinely didn’t have a clue how to involve myself in a conversation that included words like gauge, phosphor bronze, ‘12s’, nanoweb, custom lights and nickel-plated steel. It’s one of those topics where many guitarists will pretend to know what their talking about when secretly they’re just sticking to whatever came standard with the guitar originally.
So it’s time for us all to brush up on our knowledge of guitar strings so that we can be better prepared
Essentially, when we refer to the gauge of strings, we mean how thick they are, their diameter. They are measured in thousands of an inch, so a .010 string is ten thousands of an inch thick. We don’t tend to ask for a string that is ‘ten thousands of an inch thick, please’, though! Instead, it is common practice to just refer to the number, so in this case, we would just ask for a ‘10’. A simple and obvious principle of physics means that a thicker string is going to be heavier than a lighter one. i.e. a ‘12’ is going to be thicker and therefore heavier than an ‘8’. So, what does that actually mean for us as guitarists, and are there any advantages or disadvantages to thicker and heavier as opposed to thinner and lighter strings?
Gauging the right gauge
The main thing to bear in mind with the gauge of strings is that there is a balance to be struck between playability, and tone and volume. Heavier strings require more tension than lighter strings to generate the same pitch. A direct result of this fact is that thicker and therefore heavier strings are harder to press down on a fretboard than lighter strings, because they aren’t as loose and willing to be moved around. They don’t have as much give in them. They also require more energy to pluck or strum than lighter options, because there is more density of string to get vibrating. So, the playability of heavy strings can be a little problematic for beginners with finger muscles that haven’t yet developed the strength to show the strings who’s boss. Why would we consider heavy strings, then? Simple. They sound different than lighter alternatives. The main consideration is that of volume. Simply put, heavier strings generate more volume than lighter ones. They also tend to provide more sustain because the greater mass of the string takes longer to stop vibrating. These are obviously factors that are worth considering in certain circumstances. Another advantage of heavier strings is that although they vibrate for longer, they don’t vibrate as far up and down due to the tension placed on them, and this results in less fret buzz than typically accompanies lighter string gauges.
Lighter strings, on the other hand, tend to be the strings of choice for beginners because they are easier to press down and to bend on the fretboard. They are also very useful when we are playing styles of music that benefit from very quick fretting in soloing or string bends. However, where they score positively in playability terms, their benefits aren’t so plentiful in tone and volume. They don’t sustain as long, they are relatively quiet, and they can cause more fret buzz than heavier alternatives. It isn’t possible to say that one type of gauge is better than another. It all depends on personal preference, and on what we want out of our strings.
Although we don’t have to, we tend to buy our strings in full sets of 6 because it’s often more convenient and cost effective to do so. There are obviously plenty of different makes and types and measurements to choose from, but here are the typical measurements that most manufacturers tend to stick with. It’s important to note that different measurements are commonly found for acoustic as opposed to electric guitars:
Typical Acoustic Guitar String Measurement
- Extra Light: .010 .014 .023 .030 .039 .047
- Custom Light: .011 .015 .023 .032 .042 .052
- Light: 012 .016 .025 .032 .042 .053
- Medium: .013 .017 .026 .035 .045 .056
- Heavy: .014 .018 .027 .039 .049 .059
Typical Electric Guitar String Measurements
- Extra Super Light: .008 .010 .015 .021 .030 .038
- Super Light: .009 .011 .016 .024 .032 .042
- Light: .010 .013 .017 .026 .036 .046
- Medium: .011 .014 .018 .028 .038 .049
- Heavy: .012 .016 .020 .032 .042 .054
These are a general guide, but they aren’t set in stone. Not all manufacturers have the same measurements right through the sets. For example, at the time of writing, Andertons stock Elixir 10 – 47 Acoustic Strings (extra Light) at .010 .014 .023 .030 .039 .047, and Ernie Ball Slinky Acoustic Coated 10 – 50 at .010 .014 .020 .028 .040 .050. They are both sets of ‘10s’ in that they both include the lightest and thinnest E string at 10 thousands of an inch thick, but the thickness of other strings in the sets varies from .047 to .050. So, choosing a set of strings involves more than picking a brand. Some ‘heavy’ sets actually get heavier than others, for example. Granted, it may just be by something like three thousands of an inch, but that can make a significant difference once we get used to one set of measurements.
When we refer to a set of strings, we tend to use the measurement of the lightest string in the set to identify what we want. So, if I were to order a set of strings that includes .012 .016 .025 .032 .042 .054, I would more than likely just ask for ‘a set of 12s, please’, and let the manufacturer and coating etc dictate which set of measurements that actually relates to across all 6 strings. Some will ask for ’12 to 53s, please’, but the manufacturer type and thickness of the thinnest string tends to do the job.
Getting a feel for it
Even with all this theory in place, it’s still a good idea to experiment a bit to get the right feel and sound, and to make sure that we do this for each of the guitars that we own (assuming that we are lucky enough to own more than one!). Just because I prefer 12’s on one of my guitars doesn’t mean that I wouldn’t prefer 10’s on the other. Different guitar designs, shapes and tonewoods have different sonic characteristics, and it’s important that we get the string gauge right for each guitar we work with. There’ a lot more to it than simply grabbing the cheapest set that is peaking out the top of the bargain bucket on the way into the shop. I’ve done that, and believe me, it’s rarely a good idea!
Whilst it’s usually a safe bet to keep using the standard gauge strings of your guitar, changing the strings for a new set could radically improve the feel and sound of your guitar when suited to your playing style, and the instrument itself.
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